Scholars are directing more attention to employee perceptions of human resources (HR) practices and have explored issues such as whether and how employees’ idiosyncratic or collective perceptions of HR practices shape employee outcomes. To further this area of research, we seek to determine what authors mean when they refer to “employee perceptions of HR practices”. We review 105 articles from leading human resource management journals and find that employee perceptions of HR practices is not a monolithic concept. Rather, following previous scholars, we identify three distinct components of employee perceptions of HR practices: the ‘what’, ‘how’, and ‘why’. We critically summarize extant literature on these three components of employee HR perception and propose future research directions, including enriching the theoretical foundations of HR communication, embracing cross-national contexts, and enhancing practical relevance.

Over the last decade, the strategic human resource management field has paid increasing attention to employee perceptions of human resource (HR) practices (Beijer, Peccie, Van Veldhoven, & Paauwe, in press; Hewett, Shantz, Mundy, & Alfes, 2018; Ostroff & Bowen, 2016; Sanders, Shipton, & Gomes, 2014). Human resource management (HRM) scholars largely agree that employee perceptions of HR practices play a key role in influencing the effectiveness of these practices (e.g. Den Hartog, Boon, Verburg, & Croon, 2013; Jensen, Patel, & Messersmith, 2013; Jiang, Hu, Liu, & Lepak, 2017). At the individual level, employee perceptions of HR practices have been shown to mediate and moderate relationships between an organization’s HR practices and employees’ attitudes and behaviors (e.g. Aryee, Walumbwa, Seidu, & Otaye, 2012; Liao, Toya, Lepak, & Hong, 2009). At the organizational level, employee perceptions of HR practices have been identified as antecedents of unit-level performance (Bowen & Ostroff, 2004).

The rapidly expanding literature in this field has led to growing diversity in the way scholars conceptualize and operationalize employee HR perceptions. For example, the phrase “employee HR perceptions” has been used when discussing the perceived existence of certain HR practices within an organization as well as when discussing employees’ understanding of employers’ intentions behind HR practices. In this review, we aim to enhance clarity regarding the different approaches taken when researchers use the phrase “employee HR perceptions”. We build on Ostroff and Bowen’s (2016) work and identify three approaches that have been adopted when considering employee HR perceptions: the ‘what’, ‘how’, and ‘why’ of HR practices. The ‘what’ of an HR practices approach considers the content of HR practices through which an employer delivers messages to employees. The ‘how’ of an HR practices approach recognizes the possibility that the same HR content may lead to divergent outcomes depending on how such practices are framed and received by employees. The ‘why’ of an HR practices approach looks at the potential discrepancies in the way employees judge the motivations that lie behind their organization’s introduction of HR practices. We critically summarize existing research in the HR perception literature and adopt this three-fold lens to organize research in the area and to offer directions for future research.

Our study contributes to the HR perceptions field in two ways. First, we clarify the “employee perceptions of HR practices” construct and review research progress on the three different components (the ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’) that have been subsumed under this umbrella construct. We critically summarize extant literature on the three components of employee HR perceptions and propose future research directions. Our review indicates that different components of employee HR perceptions address different aspects of the HR process, and rely on different theoretical assumptions and methodological approaches. Our review reveals that we lack knowledge about how the three different components of HR perceptions complement each other. In this review, we take stock on the different research streams in the field of employee perceptions of HR practices. Our review identifies the merits, limitations, and hidden assumptions of each research stream. We seek to help scholars develop integrative research across different components of employee HR perceptions.

Second, we extend prior reviews in this domain, presenting new insights. In relation to the ‘what’ component of employee perceptions of HR practices, we build on work by Beijer et al. (in press), who provide an insightful review on perceptual measures of HR practices. We extend Beijer et al.’s work by offering additional perspectives on how employee perceptions of HR are conceptualized and operationalized in the literature. Hewett et al. (2018) offered a summary of HR perception research through the lens of attribution theory. We build on this research by expanding the theoretical domain related to the ‘how’ and ‘why’ component of HR perception research. Specifically, we identify several theoretical approaches that we suggest would enrich this area. Our review also builds on, but goes beyond, Ostroff and Bowen’s (2016) work in the HR strength research stream (the ‘how’ of employee perceptions). Finally, Farndale and Sanders (2017) discuss the connection between national cultures and HR strength. We build on their insights and consider the implication of cultural influences on the dynamics of employees’ HR perceptions. Below, we explain the methodology adopted in this review. We then investigate the difference between the assumptions, concepts, and measures of the three components of employee HR perceptions. Next, we critically review the empirical findings on the perceived ‘what’, ‘how’, and ‘why’ of HR practices, and offer insights into how research in these areas of inquiry should advance.


Scholars have called for examination of employee perceptions of HR practices so as to uncover the “black box” between HR practices and performance (Bowen & Ostroff, 2004; Den Hartog et al., 2013; Wright & Nishii, 2013). In response, researchers have begun to examine employee perceptions of HR practices in a systematic and rigorous fashion. We propose that progress can be expedited by enriching the theoretical grounding of research in this area, enlarging the empirical scope to consider, for example, cross-cultural issues, and enhancing practical relevance. We hope this review sparks more studies of employee perceptions of HR practices, with a clear understanding of the multiple aspects of this construct and a deeper understanding of the intricacies involved in the formulation and evolution of employee perceptions of HR in the workplace.

  1. Agarwal, P., & Farndale, E. (2017). High‐performance work systems and creativity implementation: The role of psychological capital and psychological safetyHuman Resource Management Journal27(3), 440458. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12148 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmad, S., & Schroeder, R. G. (2003). The impact of human resource management practices on operational performance: Recognizing country and industry differencesJournal of Operations Management21(1), 1943. doi:10.1016/S0272-6963(02)00056-6 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  3. Alfes, K.Shantz, A. D.Bailey, C.Conway, E.Monks, K., & Fu, N. (2019). Perceived human resource system strength and employee reactions toward change: Revisiting human resource’s remit as change agentHuman Resource Management58(3), 239252. doi:10.1002/hrm.21948 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  4. Alfes, K.Shantz, A. D.Truss, C., & Soane, E. C. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: A moderated mediation modelThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(2), 330351. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.679950 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  5. Alfes, K.Truss, C.Soane, E. C.Rees, C., & Gatenby, M. (2013). The relationship between line manager behaviour, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: Examining the mediating role of engagementHuman Resource Management52(6), 839859. doi:10.1002/hrm.21512 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  6. Allen, T. D. (2001). Family-supportive work environments: The role of organization perceptionsJournal of Vocational Behavior58(3), 414435. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2000.1774 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  7. Andreeva, T.Sergeeva, A. (2016). The more the better … or is it? The contradictory effects of HR practices on knowledgesharing motivation and behaviourHuman Resource Management Journal26(2), 151171. [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  8. Andreeva, T.Vanhala, M.Sergeeva, A.Ritala, P., & Kianto, A. (2017). When the fit between HR practices backfires: Exploring the interaction effects between rewards for and appraisal of knowledge behaviours on innovationHuman Resource Management Journal27(2), 209227. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12133 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  9. Ang, S. H.Bartram, T.McNeil, N.Leggat, S. G., & Stanton, P. (2013). The effects of high-performance work systems on hospital employees’ work attitudes and intention to leave: A multi-level and occupational group analysisThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(16), 30863114. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.775029 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  10. Ang, S. H.Cavanagh, J.Southcombe, A.Bartram, T.Marjoribanks, T., & McNeil, N. (2017). Human resource management, social connectedness and health and well-being of older and retired men: The role of Men’s ShedsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management28(14), 19862016. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1088886 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  11. Appelbaum, E.Bailey, T.Berg, P., & Kalleberg, A. (2000). Manufacturing advantage: Why high performance work systems pay offIthaca, NYCornell University Press. [Google Scholar]
  12. Arthur, J. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnoverAcademy of Management Journal37670687. doi:10.5465/256705 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  13. Aryee, S.Walumbwa, F. O.Seidu, E. Y., & Otaye, L. E. (2012). Impact of high-performance work systems on individual-and branch-level performance: Test of a multilevel model of intermediate linkagesJournal of Applied Psychology97(2), 287300. doi:10.1037/a0028116 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  14. Ashforth, B. E.Schinoff, B. S., & Brickson, S. (in press). My Company is Friendly,”“Mine’sa Rebel”: Anthropomorphism and shifting organizational identity from “What” to “WhoAcademy of Management Review, Epub 2018 Mar 6, doi:10.5465/amr.2016.0496 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  15. Bae, J.Chen, S. J.Wan, T. W.Lawler, J., & Walumbwa, F. (2003). Human Resource Strategy and Firm Performance in Pacific Rim CountriesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management14(8), 13081332. doi:10.1080/0958519032000145774 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  16. Bae, J., & Lawler, J. (2000). Organizational and HRM strategies in Korea: Impact on firm performance in an emerging economyAcademy of Management Journal43502517. doi:10.2307/1556407 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  17. Baer, M.Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (2003). Rewarding creativity: When does it really matter? The Leadership Quarterly14(4–5), 569586. doi:10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00052-3 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  18. Baluch, A. M. (2017). Employee perceptions of HRM and well-being in nonprofit organisations: Unpacking the unintendedThe International Journal of Human Resource Management28(14), 19121937. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1136672 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  19. Baluch, A. M.Salge, T. O., & Piening, E. P. (2013). Untangling the relationship between HRM and hospital performance: The mediating role of attitudinal and behavioural HR outcomesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(16), 30383061. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.775027 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  20. Bayazit, Z., & Bayazit, M. (2019). How do flexible work arrangements alleviate work-family-conflict? The roles of flexibility i-deals and familysupportive culturesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management30(3), 405435. [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  21. Becker, B., & Huselid, M. (1998). High performance work systems and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implicationsResearch in Personnel and Human Resource Management1653101. [Google Scholar]
  22. Bednall, T. C., & Sanders, K. (2017). Do opportunities for formal learning stimulate follow‐up participation in informal learning? A three‐wave studyHuman Resource Management56(5), 803820. doi:10.1002/hrm.21800 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  23. Bednall, T. C.Sanders, K., & Runhaar, P. (2014). Stimulating informal learning activities through perceptions of performance appraisal quality and human resource management system strength: A two-wave studyAcademy of Management Learning & Education134561. doi:10.5465/amle.2012.0162 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  24. Bednall, T. C.Sanders, K., & Yang, H. (2019, August). Results of a systematic review and a Meta-analysis of HR strength. Paper presented at the Academy of Management annual meeting, Boston. [Google Scholar]
  25. Beijer, S.Peccie, R.Van Veldhoven, M., & Paauwe, J. (in press). The turn to employees in the measurement of human resource practices: A critical review and proposed way forwardHuman Resource Management Journal. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12229. Epub 2019 Feb 27. [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  26. Binning, J. F.Zaba, A. J., & Whattam, J. C. (1986). Explaining the biasing effects of performance cues in terms of cognitive categorizationAcademy of Management Journal29521535. doi:10.2307/256222 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  27. Boon, C. T. (2008). HRM and fit. Survival of the fittest!? (Dissertation). Erasmus UniversityRotterdam, The Netherlands. [Google Scholar]
  28. Boon, C.Den Hartog, D. N.Boselie, P., & Paauwe, J. (2011). The relationship between perceptions of HR practices and employee outcomes: Examining the role of person-organisation and person-job fitThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(1), 138162. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.538978 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  29. Boon, C., & Kalshoven, K. (2014). How high – commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment: The moderating role of task proficiencyHuman Resource Management53(3), 403420. doi:10.1002/hrm.21569 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  30. Boselie, P.Dietz, G., & Boon, C. (2005). Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance researchHuman Resource Management Journal15(3), 6794. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2005.tb00154.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  31. Boselie, P.Hesselink, M.Paauwe, J., & van der Wiele, T. (2001). Employee perceptions on commitment oriented work systems: Effects on trust and perceived job securityRotterdamERIM. Workpaper. Retrieved from SSRN: [Google Scholar]
  32. Bos-Nehles, A. C., & Meijerink, J. G. (2018). HRM implementation by multiple HRM actors: A social exchange perspectiveThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(22), 30683092. doi:10.1080/09585192.2018.1443958 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  33. Bos-Nehles, A. C., & Veenendaal, A. A. (2019). Perceptions of HR practices and innovative work behavior: The moderating effect of an innovative climateThe International Journal of Human Resource Management30(18), 26612683. [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  34. Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM systemAcademy of Management Review29203221. doi:10.5465/amr.2004.12736076 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  35. Browning, V. (2006). The relationship between HRM practices and service behaviour in South African service organizationsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management17(7), 13211338. doi:10.1080/09585190600756863 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  36. Buyens, D., & De Vos, A. (2001). Perceptions of the value of the HR functionHuman Resource Management Journal11(3), 7089. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2001.tb00046.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  37. Cable, D. M., & Edwards, J. R. (2004). Complementary and supplementary fit: A theoretical and empirical integrationJournal of Applied Psychology89(5), 822834. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.822 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  38. Cabrera, Á.Collins, W. C., & Salgado, J. (2006). Determinants of individual engagement in knowledge sharingThe International Journal of Human Resource Management17(2), 245264. [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  39. Castanheira, F., & Story, J. (2016). Making good things last longer: The role of savoring on the relationship between HRM and positive employee outcomesHuman Resource Management55(6), 9851000. doi:10.1002/hrm.21704 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  40. Chacko, S., & Conway, N. (2019). Employee experiences of HRM through daily affective events and their effects on perceived event‐signalled HRM system strength, expectancy perceptions, and daily work engagementHuman Resource Management Journal29(3), 433450. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12236 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  41. Chang, P. C., & Chen, S. J. (2011). Crossing the level of employee’s performance: HPWS, affective commitment, human capital, and employee job performance in professional service organizationsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(4), 883901. [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  42. Chen, S. J.Lawler, J., & Bae, J. (2005). Convergence in human resource systems: A comparison of locally owned and MNC subsidiaries in TaiwanHuman Resource Management44(3), 237256. doi:10.1002/hrm.20069 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  43. Chen, Y. Y.Zhang, Y., & Fey, C. F. (2011). When collaborative HR practices may not work well: The moderating role of social capital in the Chinese life insurance industryThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(2), 433456. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.540164 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  44. Choi, J. H. (2019). What one thinks determines one’s actions: The importance of employees’ perception in implementing HR systemsAsia Pacific Journal of Human Resources57(1), 85102. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12146 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  45. Chuang, C., & Liao, H. (2010). Strategic human resource management in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customersPersonnel Psychology63(1), 153196. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2009.01165.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  46. Coelho, J. P.Cunha, C. R.Gomes, J. F. S., & Correia, G. A. (2015). Strength of the HRM system: The development of a measureJournal of Industrial Engineering and Management8(4), 10691086. doi:10.3926/jiem.1432 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  47. Cohen, D. J. (2007). The very separate worlds of academic and practitioner publications in human resource management: Reasons for the divide and concrete solutions for bridging the gapAcademy of Management Journal50(5), 10131019. doi:10.5465/amj.2007.27151946 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  48. Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measureJournal of Applied Psychology86(3), 386400. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.386 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  49. Combs, J.Liu, Y.Hall, A., & Ketchen, D. (2006). How much do high-performance work practices matter? A meta-analysis of their effects on organizational performancePersonnel Psychology59(3), 501528. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00045.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  50. Connelly, B. L.Certo, S. T.Ireland, R. D., & Reutzel, C. R. (2011). Signaling theory: A review and assessmentJournal of Management37(1), 3967. doi:10.1177/0149206310388419 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  51. Conway, E.Fu, N.Monks, K.Alfes, K., & Bailey, C. (2016). Demands or resources? The relationship between HR practices, employee engagement, and emotional exhaustion within a hybrid model of employment relationsHuman Resource Management55(5), 901917. doi:10.1002/hrm.21691 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  52. Conway, E., & Monks, K. (2009). Unravelling the complexities of high commitment: An employee-level analysisHuman Resource Management Journal19(2), 140158. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2009.00090.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  53. Cooke, F. L.Cooper, B.Bartram, T.Wang, J., & Mei, H. (2019). Mapping the relationships between high-performance work systems, employee resilience and engagement: A study of the banking industry in ChinaThe International Journal of Human Resource Management30(8), 12391260. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1137618 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  54. Coyle-Shapiro, J. A., & Shore, L. M. (2007). The employee–organization relationship: Where do we go from here? Human Resource Management Review17(2), 166179. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.03.008 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  55. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary reviewJournal of Management31(6), 874900. doi:10.1177/0149206305279602 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  56. De Dreu, C. K. (2007). Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: A motivated information processing perspectiveJournal of Applied Psychology92(3), 628638. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.628 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  57. De Winne, S.Delmotte, J.Gilbert, C., & Sels, L. (2013). Comparing and explaining HR department effectiveness assessments: Evidence from line managers and trade union representativesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(8), 17081735. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.725069 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  58. Deadrick, D. L., & Gibson, P. A. (2007). An examination of the research–practice gap in HR: Comparing topics of interest to HR academics and HR professionalsHuman Resource Management Review17(2), 131139. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.03.001 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  59. Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictionsAcademy of Management Journal39802835. doi:10.5465/256713 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  60. Dello Russo, S.Mascia, D., & Morandi, F. (2018). Individual perceptions of HR practices, HRM strength, and appropriateness of care: A meso, multilevel approachThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(2), 286310. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1165276 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  61. Delmotte, J.De Winne, S.Gilbert, C., & Sels, L. (2007, November). Comparing line managers and trade union representatives assessments of HRM system strength. Paper presented at Dutch HRM Network Conference, Tilburg. [Google Scholar]
  62. Delmotte, J.De Winne, S., & Sels, L. (2012). Toward an assessment of perceived HRM system strength: Scale development and validationThe International Journal of Human Resource Management23(7), 14811506. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.579921 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  63. Den Hartog, D. N.Boon, C.Verburg, R. M., & Croon, M. A. (2013). HRM, communication, satisfaction, and perceived performance: A Cross-Level TestJournal of Management39(6), 16371665. doi:10.1177/0149206312440118 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  64. Dorenbosch, Reuver, R., & Sanders, K. (2006). Getting the HR message across: The linkage between Line–HR consensus and” commitment strength” among hospital employeesManagement Revu17(3), 274291. doi:10.5771/0935-9915-2006-3-274 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  65. Dumont, J.Shen, J., & Deng, X. (2017). Effects of green HRM practices on employee workplace green behavior: The role of psychological green climate and employee green valuesHuman Resource Management56(4), 613627. doi:10.1002/hrm.21792 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  66. Edgar, F., & Geare, A. (2005). HRM practice and employee attitudes: Different measures-different resultsPersonnel Review34(5), 534549. doi:10.1108/00483480510612503 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  67. Edgar, F., & Geare, A. (2014). An employee-centred analysis: Professionals’ experiences and reactions to HRMThe International Journal of Human Resource Management25(5), 673695. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.803137 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  68. Ehrnrooth, M., & Bjorkman, I. (2012). An Integrative HRM process theorization: Beyond signalling effects and mutual gainsJournal of Management Studies49(6), 11091135. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2012.01055.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  69. Elorza, U.Aritzeta, A., & Ayestaran, S. (2011). Exploring the black box in Spanish firms: The effect of the actual and perceived system on employees’ commitment and organisational performanceThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(7), 14011422. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.561956 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  70. Elorza, U.Harris, C.Aritzeta, A., & Balluerka, N. (2016). The effect of management and employee perspectives of high-performance work systems on employees’ discretionary behaviourPersonnel Review45(1), 121141. doi:10.1108/PR-07-2014-0167 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  71. Epley, N.Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). On seeing human: A three-factor theory of anthropomorphismPsychological Review114(4), 864886. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.864 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  72. Farndale, E.Hope-Hailey, V., & Kelliher, C. (2011). High commitment performance management: The roles of justice and trustPersonnel Review40(1), 523. doi:10.1108/00483481111095492 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  73. Farndale, E., & Kelliher, C. (2013). Implementing performance appraisal: Exploring the employee experienceHuman Resource Management52(6), 879897. doi:10.1002/hrm.21575 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  74. Farndale, E., & Sanders, K. (2017). Conceptualizing HRM system strength through a crosscultural lensThe International Journal of Human Resource Management28(1), 132148. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1239124 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  75. Fiske, S., & Taylor, S. (1991). Social Cognition (2nd ed.). New York: Mcgraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]
  76. Fletcher, L.Alfes, K., & Robinson, D. (2018). The relationship between perceived training and development and employee retention: The mediating role of work attitudesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(18), 27012728. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1262888 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  77. Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisionsAcademy of Management Journal32115130. doi:10.2307/256422 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  78. Fontinha, R.Chambel, M. J., & De Cuyper, N. (2012). HR attributions and the dual commitment of outsourced IT workersPersonnel Review41(6), 832848. doi:10.1108/00483481211263773 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  79. Foss, N. J.Minbaeva, D. B.Pedersen, T., & Reinholt, M. (2009). Encouraging knowledge sharing among employees: How job design mattersHuman Resource Management48(6), 871893. doi:10.1002/hrm.20320 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  80. Foss, N. J.Pedersen, T.Reinholt Fosgaard, M., & Stea, D. (2015). Why complementary HRM practices impact performance: The case of rewards, job design, and work climate in a knowledge‐sharing contextHuman Resource Management54(6), 955976. doi:10.1002/hrm.21649 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  81. Frenkel, S. J., & Bednall, T. (2016). How training and promotion opportunities, career expectations, and two dimensions of organizational justice explain discretionary work effortHuman Performance29(1), 1632. doi:10.1080/08959285.2015.1120306 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  82. Frenkel, S. J.Li, M., & Restubog, S. L. D. (2012). Management, organisational justice and emotional exhaustion among Chinese migrant workers: Evidence from two manufacturing firmsBritish Journal of Industrial Relations50(1), 121147. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8543.2011.00858.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  83. Frenkel, S. J.Restubog, S. L. D., & Bednall, T. (2012). How employee perceptions of HR policy and practice influence discretionary work effort and co-worker assistance: Evidence from two organisationsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management23(20), 41934210. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.667433 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  84. Gellatly, I. R.Hunter, K. H.Currie, L. G., & Irving, P. G. (2009). HRM practices and organizational commitment profilesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management20(4), 869884. doi:10.1080/09585190902770794 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  85. Gerhart, B.Wright, P. M.Mahan, G. C., & Snell, S. A. (2000). Measurement error in research on human resources and firm performance: How much error is there and how does it influence effect size estimates? Personnel Psychology53(4), 803834. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb02418.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  86. Gkorezis, P.Georgiou, L., & Theodorou, M. (2018). High-performance work practices and nurses’ intention to leave: The mediating role of organisational cynicism and the moderating role of human resource management-related educational backgroundThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(3), 465484. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1255906 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  87. Gong, Y.Huang, J. C., & Farh, J. L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacyAcademy of Management Journal52(4), 765778. doi:10.5465/amj.2009.43670890 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  88. Gould-Williams, J. (2003). The Importance of HR practices and workplace trust in achieving superior performance: A study of public-sector organizationsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management14(1), 2854. doi:10.1080/09585190210158501 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  89. Gould-Williams, J., & Davies, F. (2005). Using social exchange theory to predict the effects of HRM practice on employee outcomesPublic Management Review7(1), 124. doi:10.1080/1471903042000339392 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  90. Gray, B.Bougon, M. G., & Donnellon, A. (1985). Organisations as constructions and destructions of meaningJournal of Management11(2), 8398. doi:10.1177/014920638501100212 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  91. Greenberg, D. N. (1995). Blue versus gray: A metaphor constraining sensemaking around a restructuringGroup & Organization Management20183209. doi:10.1177/1059601195202007 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  92. Guest, D. E. (1999). Human resource management‐the workers’ verdictHuman Resource Management Journal9(3), 525. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.1999.tb00200.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  93. Guest, D. E., & Conway, N. (2002). Communicating the psychological contract: An employer perspectiveHuman Resource Management Journal12(2), 2238. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2002.tb00062.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  94. Hauff, S.Alewell, D., & Hansen, N. (2017). HRM system strength and HRM target achievement: Towards a broader understanding of HRM processesHuman Resource Management56(5), 715729. doi:10.1002/hrm.21798 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  95. Heffernan, M., & Dundon, T. (2016). Cross-level effects of high‐performance work systems (HPWS) and employee well‐being: The mediating effect of organisational justiceHuman Resource Management Journal26(2), 211231. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12095 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  96. Herrbach, O.Mignonac, K.Vandenberghe, C., & Negrini, A. (2009). Perceived HRM practices, organisational commitment, and voluntary early retirement among late‐career managersHuman Resource Management48(6), 895915. doi:10.1002/hrm.20321 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  97. Hewett, R.Shantz, A., & Mundy, J. (2019). Information, beliefs, and morivation: The antecedents to human resource attributionsJournal of Organizational Behavior40(5), 570586. [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  98. Hewett, R.Shantz, A.Mundy, J., & Alfes, K. (2018). Attribution theories in Human Resource Management Review research: A review and research agendaThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(1), 87126. doi:10.1080/09585192.2017.1380062 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  99. Huang, J., & Martin-Taylor, M. (2013). Turnaround user acceptance in the context of HR self-service technology adoption: An action research approachThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(3), 621642. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.677460 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  100. Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performanceAcademy of Management Journal38635672. doi:10.2307/256741 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  101. Huselid, M. A., & Becker, B. E. (2000). Comment on “Measurement error in research on human resources and firm performance: How much error is there and how does it influence effect size estimates?” by Gerhart, Wright, Mc Mahan, and SnellPersonnel Psychology53(4), 835854. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb02419.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  102. Ivancevich, J. M.Konopaske, R., & DeFrank, R. S. (2003). Business travel stress: A model, propositions and managerial implicationsWork & Stress17138157. doi:10.1080/713868351 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  103. Jensen, M. (2014). Exploring business travel with work-family conflict and the emotional exhaustion component of burnout as outcome variables: The job demands-resources perspectiveEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology23(4), 497510. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2013.787183 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  104. Jensen, J. M.Patel, P. C., & Messersmith, J. G. (2013). High-performance work systems and job control: Consequences for anxiety, role overload, and turnover intentionsJournal of Management39(6), 16991724. doi:10.1177/0149206311419663 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  105. Jiang, K.Hu, J.Liu, S., & Lepak, D. P. (2017). Understanding employees’ perceptions of human resource practices: Effects of demographic dissimilarity to managers and coworkersHuman Resource Management56(1), 6991. doi:10.1002/hrm.21771 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  106. Jiang, K.Lepak, D. P.Hu, J., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanismsAcademy of Management Journal55(6), 12641294. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.0088 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  107. Johnson, E. K. (2000). The practice of human resource management in New ZealandAsia Pacific Journal of Human Resources38(2), 6983. doi:10.1177/103841110003800206 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  108. Kaše, R.Paauwe, J., & Zupan, N. (2009). HR practices, interpersonal relations, and intrafirm knowledge transfer in knowledge‐intensive firms: A social network perspectiveHuman Resource Management48(4), 615639. doi:10.1002/hrm.20301 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  109. Katou, A. A.Budhwar, P. S., & Patel, C. (2014). Content vs. Process in the HRM‐Performance Relationship: An Empirical ExaminationHuman Resource Management53(4), 527544. doi:10.1002/hrm.21606 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  110. Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behavioursJournal of Management39(2), 366391. doi:10.1177/0149206310365901 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  111. Kelley, H. H. (1973). The processes of causal attributionAmerican Psychologist28(2), 107128. doi:10.1037/h0034225 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  112. Kelley, H. H., & Michela, J. L. (1980). Attribution theory and researchAnnual Review of Psychology31457501. doi:10.1146/ [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  113. Kianto, A.Andreeva, T., & Shi, X. (2011). Knowledge management across the globe – an international survey of KM awareness, spending, practices and performance. In F. Lehner and K. Bredl (Eds), Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Knowledge ManagementReadingAcademic Publishing International. [Google Scholar]
  114. Kilroy, S.Flood, P. C.Bosak, J., & Chênevert, D. (2016). Perceptions of high-involvement work practices and burnout: The mediating role of job demandsHuman Resource Management Journal26(4), 408424. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12112 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  115. Kilroy, S.Flood, P. C.Bosak, J., & Chênevert, D. (2017). Perceptions of high‐involvement work practices, person‐organisation fit, and burnout: A time‐lagged study of health care employeesHuman Resource Management56(5), 821835. doi:10.1002/hrm.21803 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  116. Kim, S., & Wright, P. M. (2011). Putting strategic human resource management in context: A contextualized model of high commitment work systems and its implications in ChinaManagement and Organization Review7(1), 153174. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00185.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  117. Kinnie, N.Hutchinson, S.Purcell, J.Rayton, B., & Swart, J. (2005). Satisfaction with HR practices and commitment to the organization: Why one size does not fi t allHuman Resource Management Journal15(4), 929. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2005.tb00293.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  118. Knies, E., & Leisink, P. (2014). Linking people management and extra-role behaviour: Results of a longitudinal studyHuman Resource Management Journal24(1), 5776. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12023 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  119. Knight-Turvey, N. (2004, December). High commitment work practices and employee commitment to the organisation: The mediating role of psychological empowerment. Paper Presented at the 18th Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, NZ. [Google Scholar]
  120. Kooij, D. T., & Boon, C. (2018). Perceptions of HR practices, person–organisation fit, and affective commitment: The moderating role of career stageHuman Resource Management Journal28(1), 6175. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12164 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  121. Kooij, D. T.Jansen, P. G.Dikkers, J. S., & De Lange, A. H. (2010). The influence of age on the associations between HR practices and both affective commitment and job satisfaction: A meta-analysisJournal of Organizational Behavior31(8), 11111136. doi:10.1002/job.666 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  122. Koster, F. (2011). Able, willing, and knowing: The effects of HR practices on commitment and effort in 26 European countriesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(14), 28352851. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.599946 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  123. Kroon, B.van de Voorde, K., & van Veldhoven, M. (2009). Cross-level effects of high performance work practices on burnout: Two counteracting mediating mechanisms comparedPersonnel Review38(5), 509525. doi:10.1108/00483480910978027 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  124. Kuvaas, B. (2008). An exploration of how the employee-organisation relationship affects the linkage between perception of developmental human resource practices and employee outcomesJournal of Management Studies45125. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00710.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  125. Kuvaas, B., & Dysvik, A. (2009). Perceived investment in employee development, intrinsic motivation and work performanceHuman Resource Management Journal19(3), 217236. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2009.00103.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  126. Lawler, E.Mohrman, S., & Ledford, G. (1995). Creating high performance organizations: Practices and results of employee involvement and total quality management in fortune 1000 companiesSan Francisco, CAJossey-Bass. [Google Scholar]
  127. Lee, C. H., & Bruvold, N. T. (2003). Creating value for employees: Investment in employee developmentThe International Journal of Human Resource Management14(6), 9811000. doi:10.1080/0958519032000106173 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  128. Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (2002). Examining the human resource architecture: The relationships among human capital, employment, and human resource configurationsJournal of Management28(4), 517543. doi:10.1177/014920630202800403 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  129. Leung, A.Foo, M. D., & Chaturvedi, S. (2013). Imprinting Effects of Founding Core Teams on HR Values in New VenturesEntrepreneurship Theory and Practice37(1), 87106. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00532.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  130. Li, F.Deng, H.Leung, K., & Zhao, Y. (2017). Is perceived creativity‐reward contingency good for creativity? The role of challenge and threat appraisalsHuman Resource Management56(4), 693709. doi:10.1002/hrm.21795 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  131. Li, X., & Frenkel, S. (2017). Where hukou status matters: Analyzing the linkage between supervisor perceptions of HR practices and employee work engagementThe International Journal of Human Resource Management28(17), 23752402. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1137613 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  132. Li, X.Frenkel, S. J., & Sanders, K. (2011). Strategic HRM as process: How HR system and organisational climate strength influence Chinese employee attitudesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(9), 18251842. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.573965 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  133. Li, Y.Wang, M.Van Jaarsveld, D. D.Lee, G. K., & Ma, D. G. (2018). From employee-experienced high-involvement work system to innovation: An emergence-based human resource management frameworkAcademy of Management Journal61(5), 20002019. doi:10.5465/amj.2015.1101 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  134. Liao, H.Toya, K.Lepak, D. P., & Hong, Y. (2009). Do They See Eye to Eye? Management and employee perspectives of high-performance work systems and influence processes on service qualityJournal of Applied Psychology94(2), 371391. doi:10.1037/a0013504 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  135. Liu, D.Gong, Y.Zhou, J., & Huang, J. C. (2017). Human resource systems, employee creativity, and firm innovation: The moderating role of firm ownershipAcademy of Management Journal60(3), 11641188. doi:10.5465/amj.2015.0230 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  136. Lord, R. G.Binning, J. F.Rush, M. C., & Thomas, J. C. (1978). The effect of performance cues and leader behavior on questionnaire ratings of leadership behaviorOrganizational Behavior and Human Performance21(1), 2739. doi:10.1016/0030-5073(78)90036-3 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  137. Ma, S.Silva, M. G.Callan, V. J., & Trigo, V. (2016). Control and commitment HR practices, job satisfaction and turnover intentions: A comparison between local and multinational firms in ChinaThe International Journal of Human Resource Management27(9), 974990. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1052535 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  138. Maatman, M.Bondarouk, T., & Looise, J. K. (2010). Conceptualising the capabilities and value creation of HRM shared service modelsHuman Resource Management Review20(4), 327339. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.02.001 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  139. Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2007). The relationship between ‘high-performance work practices’ and employee attitudes: An investigation of additive and interaction effectsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management18(4), 537567. doi:10.1080/09585190601178745 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  140. Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2008). High-involvement work processes, work intensification and employee well-being: A study of New Zealand worker experiencesAsia Pacific Journal of Human Resources46(1), 3855. doi:10.1177/1038411107086542. [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  141. Maden, C. (2015). Linking high involvement human resource practices to employee proactivity: The role of work engagement and learning goal orientationPersonnel Review44(5), 720738. doi:10.1108/PR-01-2014-0030 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  142. Maitlis, S., & Christianson, M. (2014). Sensemaking in organizations: Taking stock and moving forwardAcademy of Management Annals8(1), 57125. doi:10.5465/19416520.2014.873177 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  143. Mäkelä, L., & Kinnunen, U. (2018). International business travelers’ psychological well-being: The role of supportive HR practicesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(7), 12851306. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1194872 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  144. Makhecha, U.Srinivasan, V.Prabhu, G. U., & Mukherji, S. (2018). Multi-level gaps: A study of intended, actual and experienced human resource practices in a hypermarket chain in IndiaThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(2), 360398. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1126336 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  145. Maurer, T. J., & Tarulli, B. A. (1994). Investigation of perceived environment, perceived outcome, and person variables in relationship to voluntary development activity by employeesJournal of Applied Psychology79(1), 314. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.79.1.3 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  146. Meyer, J. P., & Smith, C. A. (2009). HRM practices and organizational commitment: Test of a mediation modelCanadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences de L’administration17(4), 319331. doi:10.1111/j.1936-4490.2000.tb00231.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  147. Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personalityPsychological Review80(4), 252283. doi:10.1037/h0035002 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  148. Mohr, R. D., & Zoghi, C. X. (2008). High-involvement work design and job satisfactionIndustrial & Labor Relations Review61275296. doi:10.1177/001979390806100301 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  149. Monks, K.Conway, E.Fu, N.Bailey, K.Kelly, G., & Hannon, E. (2016). Enhancing knowledge exchange and combination through HR practices: Reflexivity as a translation processHuman Resource Management Journal26(3), 304320. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12108 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  150. Morris, M. W.Leung, K.Ames, D., & Lickel, B. (1999). Views from inside and outside: Integrating emic and etic insights about culture and justice judgmentAcademy of Management Review24(4), 781796. doi:10.5465/amr.1999.2553253 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  151. Nicolai, A., & Seidl, D. (2010). That’s relevant! Different forms of practical relevance in management scienceOrganization Studies31(9-10), 12571285. doi:10.1177/0170840610374401 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  152. Nishii, L. H.Lepak, D. P., & Schneider, B. (2008). Employee attributions of the “why” of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviours, and customer satisfactionPersonnel Psychology61(3), 503545. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00121.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  153. Op de Beeck, S.Wynen, J., & Hondeghem, A. (2016). HRM implementation by line managers: Explaining the discrepancy in HR-line perceptions of HR devolutionThe International Journal of Human Resource Management27(17), 19011919. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1088562 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  154. Ostroff, C., & Bowen, D. E. (2000). Moving HR to a higher level: HR practices and organizational effectiveness. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 211266). San Francisco, CAJossey-Bass. [Google Scholar]
  155. Ostroff, C., & Bowen, D. E. (2016). Reflections on the 2014 decade award: Is there strength in the construct of HR system strength? Academy of Management Review41(2), 196214. doi:10.5465/amr.2015.0323 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  156. Paauwe, J., & Boselie, P. (2003). Challenging ‘strategic HRM’and the relevance of the institutional settingHuman Resource Management Journal13(3), 5670. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2003.tb00098.x [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  157. Pereira, C. M., & Gomes, J. F. (2012). The strength of human resource practices and transformational leadership: Impact on organisational performanceThe International Journal of Human Resource Management23(20), 43014318. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.667434 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  158. Peters, P.Poutsma, E.van der Heijden, B.Bakker, A. B., & de Bruijn, T. (2014). Enjoying New Ways to Work: An HRM-Process Approach to Study FlowHuman Resource Management53(2), 271290. doi:10.1002/hrm.21588 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  159. Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive advantage through peopleCalifornia Management Review36(2), 928. doi:10.2307/41165742 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  160. Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people firstBoston, MAHarvard Business School Press. [Google Scholar]
  161. Piening, E. P.Baluch, A. M., & Ridder, H. G. (2014). Mind the intended – implemented gap: Understanding employees’ perceptions of HRMHuman Resource Management53(4), 545567. doi:10.1002/hrm.21605 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  162. Piening, E. P.Baluch, A. M., & Salge, T. O. (2013). The relationship between employees’ perceptions of human resource systems and organisational performance: Examining mediating mechanisms and temporal dynamicsJournal of Applied Psychology98(6), 926947. doi:10.1037/a0033925 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  163. Porter, L. W.Pearce, J. L.Tripoli, A. M., and Lewis, K. M. (1998). Differential Perceptions of Employers’ Inducements: Implications for Psychological ContractsJournal of Organizational Behavior19769782. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(1998)19:1+<769::AID-JOB968>3.0.CO;2-1 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  164. Prieto, I., & Santana, M. P. (2012). Building ambidexterity: The role of human resource practices in the performance of firms from SpainHuman Resource Management51(2), 189211. doi:10.1002/hrm.21463 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  165. Redmond, E. (2013). Compentency models at work: The value of perceived relevance and fair rewards for employee outcomesHuman Resource Management52(5), 771792. doi:10.1002/hrm.21560 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  166. Riordan, C. M.Vandenberg, R. J., & Richardson, H. E. (2005). Employee involvement climate and organizational effectivenessHuman Resource Management44(4), 471488. doi:10.1002/hrm.20085 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  167. Robinson, D.Hooker, H., & Hayday, S. (2007). Engagement: The continuing story. Report 447. BrightonInstitute for Employment Studies. [Google Scholar]
  168. Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreementsThousand Oaks, CASage Publications. [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  169. Rousseau, D. M., & Tijoriwala, S. A. (1998). Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives, and measuresJournal of Organizational Behavior19(S1), 679685. [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  170. Ryan, A. M., & Schmit, M. J. (1996). An assessment of organizational climate and P-E Fit: A tool for organizational changeThe International Journal of Organizational Analysis4(1), 7595. doi:10.1108/eb028842 [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  171. Rynes, S. L.Giluk, T. L., & Brown, K. G. (2007). The very separate worlds of academic and practitioner periodicals in human resource management: Implications for evidence-based managementAcademy of Management Journal50(5), 9871008. doi:10.5465/amj.2007.27151939 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  172. Sanders, K.Dorenbosch, L., & de Reuver, R. (2008). The impact of individual and shared employee perceptions of HRM on affective commitment – Considering climate strengthPersonnel Review37(4), 412425. doi:10.1108/00483480810877589 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  173. Sanders, K.Guest, D., & Rodrigues, R. (2017). The Role of HR Attributions in the Relationship Between HRM and OutcomesHuman Resource Management Journal, Special Issue Call for papers. [PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  174. Sanders, K.Jorgensen, F.Shipton, H.van Rossenberg, Y.Cunha, R.Li, X., … Dysvik, A. (2018). Performance-based rewards and innovative behaviorsHuman Resource Management57(6), 14551468. doi:10.1002/hrm.21918 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  175. Sanders, K.Shipton, H., & Gomes, J. F. (2014). Guest editors’ introduction: Is the HRM process important? Past, current, and future challengesHuman Resource Management53(4), 489503. doi:10.1002/hrm.21644 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  176. Sanders, K.van Riemsdijk, M., & Groen, B. (2008). The gap between research and practice: A replication study on the HR professionals’ beliefs about effective human resource practicesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management19(10), 19761988. doi:10.1080/09585190802324304 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  177. Sanders, K., & Van der Ven, F. (2004). De rollen van Ulrich in de praktijk: verschillen tussen groepen actoren binnen een organisatieTijdschrift Voor HRM63756. [Google Scholar]
  178. Sanders, K., & Yang, H. (2016). The HRM Process Approach: The influence of employees’ attribution to explain the HRM‐Performance relationshipHuman Resource Management55(2), 201217. doi:10.1002/hrm.21661 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  179. Sanders, K.Yang, H., & Li, X. (in press). Quality enhancement or cost reduction? The influence of high-performance work systems and power distance orientation on employee human resource attributionsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management. [Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  180. Schneider, B.White, S. S., & Paul, M. C. (1998). Linking service climate and customer perceptions of service quality: Tests of a causal modelJournal of Applied Psychology83(2), 150163. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.83.2.150 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  181. Schopman, L. M.Kalshoven, K., & Boon, C. (2017). When health care workers perceive high-commitment HRM will they be motivated to continue working in health care? It may depend on their supervisor and intrinsic motivationThe International Journal of Human Resource Management28(4), 657677. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1109534 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  182. Schuster, F. E. (1982). A tool for evaluating and controlling the management of human resourcesPersonnel Administrator27(10), 6367. [PubMed][Google Scholar]
  183. Searle, R.Den Hartog, D. N.Weibel, A.Gillespie, N.Six, F.Hatzakis, T., & Skinner, D. (2011). Trust in the employer: The role of high-involvement work practices and procedural justice in European organizationsThe International Journal of Human Resource Management22(5), 10691092. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.556782 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  184. Shantz, A.Arevshatian, L.Alfes, K., & Bailey, C. (2016). The effect of HRM attributions on emotional exhaustion and the mediating roles of job involvement and work overloadHuman Resource Management Journal26(2), 172191. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12096 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  185. Shen, J., & Leggett, C. (2014). The effects of hukou (official household residential status) on perceived human resource management practices and organizational justice in ChinaPersonnel Review43(2), 168183. doi:10.1108/PR-07-2012-0118 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  186. Shih, H. A.Chiang, Y. H., & Hsu, C. C. (2010). High involvement work system, work–family conflict, and expatriate performance–examining Taiwanese expatriates in ChinaThe International Journal of Human Resource Management21(11), 20132030. doi:10.1080/09585192.2010.505101 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  187. Shondrick, S. J.Dinh, J. E., & Lord, R. G. (2010). Developments in implicit leadership theory and cognitive science: Applications to improving measurement and understanding alternatives to hierarchical leadershipThe Leadership Quarterly21(6), 959978. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.004 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  188. Skarlicki, D.Folger, R., & Tesluk, P. (1999). Personality as a moderator in the relationship between fairness and retaliationAcademy of Management Journal42100108. doi:10.2307/256877 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  189. Solberg, E., & Dysvik, A. (2016). Employees’ perceptions of HR investment and their efforts to remain internally employable: Testing the exchange-based mechanisms of the ‘new psychological contractThe International Journal of Human Resource Management27(9), 909927. [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  190. Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human-service staff satisfaction-Development of the job-satisfaction surveyAmerican Journal of Community Psychology13(6), 693713. doi:10.1007/BF00929796 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  191. Spence, M. (2002). Signaling in retrospect and the informational structure of marketsAmerican Economic Review92(3), 434459. doi:10.1257/00028280260136200 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  192. Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validationAcademy of Management Journal3814421465. doi:10.5465/256865 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  193. Stirpe, L.Trullen, J., & Bonache, J. (2013). Factors helping the HR function gain greater acceptance for its proposals and innovations: Evidence from SpainThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(20), 37943811. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.778320 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  194. Sumelius, J.Björkman, I.Ehrnrooth, M.Mäkelä, K., & Smale, A. (2014). What determines employee perceptions of HRM process features? The case of performance appraisal in MNC subsidiariesHuman Resource Management53(4), 569592. doi:10.1002/hrm.21604 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  195. Sun, L.-Y.Aryee, S., & Law, K. S. (2007). High-performance human resource practices, citizenship behaviour, and organisational performance: A relational perspectiveAcademy of Management Journal50(3), 558577. doi:10.5465/amj.2007.25525821 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  196. Sweeney, P. D., & McFarlin, D. B. (1993). Workers’ evaluations of the ends and themeans: An examination of four models of distributive and procedural justiceOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes55(1), 2340. doi:10.1006/obhd.1993.1022 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  197. Takeuchi, R.Lepak, D. P.Wang, H., & Takeuchi, K. (2007). An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organisationsJournal of Applied Psychology92(4), 10691083. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.1069 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  198. Takeuchi, N., & Takeuchi, T. (2013). Committed to the organization or the job? Effects of perceived HRM practices on employees’ behavioral outcomes in the Japanese healthcare industryThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(11), 20892106. doi:10.1080/09585192.2013.767059 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  199. Tremblay, M.Cloutier, J.Simard, G.Chênevert, D., & Vandenberghe, C. (2010). The role of HRM practices, procedural justice, organisational support and trust in organisational commitment and in-role and extra-role performanceThe International Journal of Human Resource Management21(3), 405433. doi:10.1080/09585190903549056 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  200. Truss, C. (1999). Soft and hard models of human resource management. In L. GrattonV. Hope-HaileyP. Stiles, & C. Truss (Eds.), Strategic human resource management: Corporate rhetoric and human reality (pp. 4058). Oxford, UKOxford University Press. [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  201. Tsui, A. S., & Wang, D. (2002). Employment relationships from the employer’s perspective: Current research and future directionsInternational Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology1777114. [Google Scholar]
  202. Tyler, T. R., & Lind, E. A. (1992). A relationalmodel of authority in groups. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychologyNew YorkAcademic Press. [Google Scholar]
  203. Ulrich, D. (1997). Human Resource Champions: The Next Agenda for Adding Values and Delivery ResultsBoston, MAHarvard Business School Press. [Google Scholar]
  204. Van de Voorde, K., & Beijer, S. (2015). The role of employee HR attributions in the relationship between high‐performance work systems and employee outcomesHuman Resource Management Journal25(1), 6278. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12062 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  205. van Veldhoven, M., & Meijman, T. F. (1994). Het meten van psychosociale arbeidsbelasting met een vragenlijst: de vragenlijst beleving en beoordeling van de arbeid (VBBA). AmsterdamNIA. [Google Scholar]
  206. Vandenberg, R. J.Richardson, H. A., & Eastman, L. J. (1999). The impact of high involvement work processes on organisational effectiveness: A second order latent variable approachGroup & Organization Management24(3), 300339. doi:10.1177/1059601199243004 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  207. Veld, M., & Alfes, K. (2017). HRM, climate and employee well-being: Comparing an optimistic and critical perspectiveThe International Journal of Human Resource Management28(16), 22992318. doi:10.1080/09585192.2017.1314313 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  208. Veld, M.Paauwe, J., & Boselie, P. (2010). HRM and strategic climates in hospitals: Does the message come across at the ward level? Human Resource Management Journal20(4), 339356. doi:10.1111/j.1748-8583.2010.00139.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  209. Vermeeren, B. (2014). Variability in HRM implementation among line managers and its effect on performance: A 2-1-2 mediational multilevel approachThe International Journal of Human Resource Management25(22), 30393059. doi:10.1080/09585192.2014.934891 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  210. Way, S. A. (2002). High performance work systems and intermediate indicators of firm performance within the US small business sectorJournal of Management28765785. doi:10.1177/014920630202800604 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  211. Wayne, S. J.Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspectiveAcademy of Management Journal4082111. doi:10.2307/257021 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  212. Weber, K., & Glynn, M. A. (2006). Making sense with institutions: Context, thought and action in Karl Weick’s theoryOrganization Studies27(11), 16391660. doi:10.1177/0170840606068343 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  213. Webster, J. R., & Beehr, T. A. (2013). Antecedents and outcomes of employee perceptions of intra-organisational mobility channelsJournal of Organisational Behaviour34919941. [Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  214. Wehner, M.Giardini, A., & Kabst, R. (2015). Recruitment process outsourcing and applicant reactions: When does image make a difference? Human Resource Management54(6), 851875. doi:10.1002/hrm.21640 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  215. Welch, D., & Worm, V. (2006). International business travelers: A challenge for IHRM. In G. Stahl & I. Björkman (Eds.), Handbook of research in international human resource management (pp. 284301). LondonEdward Elgar. [Crossref][Google Scholar]
  216. Wood, S., & Albanese, M. T. (1995). Can we speak of a high commitment management on the shop floor? Journal of Management Studies32(2), 215248. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1995.tb00341.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  217. Wright, P. M.Gardner, T. M.Moynihan, L. M., & Allen, M. R. (2005). The Relationship Between HR Practices and Firm Performance: Examining Causal OrderPersonnel Psychology58(2), 409446. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00487.x [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  218. Wright, P. M.McMahan, G. C.Snell, S. A., & Gerhart, B. (2001). Comparing line and HR executives’ perceptions of HR effectiveness: Services, roles, and contributionsHuman Resource Management40(2), 111123. doi:10.1002/hrm.1002.abs [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  219. Wright, P. M., & Nishii, L. H. (2013). HRM and performance: The role of effective implementationJ. Paauwed. Guest, & P. Wright (Eds.), HRM, & performance. Achievements, & challengesChichester, United KingdomJohn Wiley & Sons. [Google Scholar]
  220. Wu, W. L.Hsu, B. F. and Yeh, R. S. (2007). Fostering the determinants of knowledge transfer: a team-level analysisJournal of Information Science33(3), 326339. [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  221. Yamamoto, H. (2013). The relationship between employees’ perceptions of human resource management and their retention: From the viewpoint of attitudes toward job-specialtiesThe International Journal of Human Resource Management24(4), 747767. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.697478 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  222. Yanadori, Y., & Van Jaarsveld, D. D. (2014). The relationships of informal high performance work practices to job satisfaction and workplace profitabilityIndustrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society53501534. doi:10.1111/irel.12066 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  223. Yang, Y. C. (2012). High-involvement human resource practices, affective commitment, and organizational citizenshipThe Service Industries Journal32(8), 12091227. doi:10.1080/02642069.2010.545875 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  224. Yousaf, A.Sanders, K., & Yustantio, Y. (2018). High commitment HRM and organisational and occupational turnover intentions: The role of organisational and occupational commitmentThe International Journal of Human Resource Management29(10), 16611682. doi:10.1080/09585192.2016.1256905 [Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  225. Zacharatos, A.Barling, J., & Iverson, R. D. (2005). High-performance work systems and occupational safetyThe Journal of Applied Psychology90(1), 7793. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.77 [Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]
  226. Zatzick, C. D., & Iverson, R. D. (2006). High-involvement management and workforce reduction: Competitive advantage or disadvantageAcademy of Management Journal49(5), 9991015. doi:10.5465/amj.2006.22798180 [Crossref][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar]

Employee perceptions of HR practices

Author(s): Ying Wang, Sunghoon Kim ,Alannah Rafferty & Karin Sanders

Alternative formats


Kategori: ArtikelBooksEasy

Rusdin Tahir

Senior Lecturer [study on leaves] Department of Business Administration Science Faculty of Social and Political Science UNIVERSITY OF PADJADJARAN Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor 45363, West Java, Indonesia Ph: +62 22 7792647,7796416 Fax: +62 22 7792647 Mobile: +62 81 123 9491; 822 919 356 65 Email:;; Web: Web: Web: Web: Web:

Tinggalkan Balasan